Category Archives: Health Benefits

Get Off the Couch and Work Your Core

plank-fitness-muscular-exercising-163437.jpegIf you suffer from diabetes, you already know that staying fit greatly benefits your health. Yet, many of the complications caused by diabetes can make it difficult to get the exercise you need; in fact, they can make a normal exercise routine difficult or even dangerous. For example, peripheral neuropathy (numbness in the feet caused by nerve damage) may affect your balance and put you at risk for a fall, or could lead to slow-healing ulcers that keep you inactive. On top of that, diabetes patients may have heart disease symptoms or vision problems that make getting up and going for a walk more risky than helpful.

The good news is that these complications don’t have to prevent you from doing safe and healthy exercise. You can still get a beneficial workout—minus the risks—by exercising your core. Even though a lot of people with diabetes think having neuropathy or other complications means they have to be a couch potato, that’s just not true. Just because you can’t get outside for a brisk walk or run doesn’t mean you can’t get fit. Exercising your core is a safe way to improve your strength and stability so you can better handle your daily life—right from your own home.

Core exercises are an important part of a well-rounded fitness program for diabetes patients. Your body core, including the muscles around your trunk, is particularly important to keep strong so you can go about your normal daily activity and prevent falls and injuries, particularly as you age. The best part? They are easy to do on your own in your home, and you don’t even need to purchase any equipment to perform them. However, once you become more advanced, you can accelerate your workouts using a gym ball or dumbbells.

Ready to get a strong core and improve your stability and overall wellness? Here are ten core exercises that I recommend highly for people with diabetes (or anyone for that matter).

Look for illustrated versions of these core exercises in Chapter 21 (“Ten Easy Exercises to Build a Strong Core without Leaving the House”) in Diabetes & Keeping Fit for Dummies by Dr. Sheri Colberg available online at or

(1) Abdominal Squeezes. This exercise is great for working your abdominals and getting your core as strong as possible. If you’re female and have gone through a pregnancy, getting these muscles in shape doing these squeezes is a must.

  1. Put one of your hands against your upper stomach and the other facing the other direction below your belly button.
  2. Inhale to expand your stomach.
  3. Exhale and try to pull your abdominal muscles halfway toward your spine. This is your starting position.
  4. Contract your abdominal muscles more deeply in toward your spine while counting to two.
  5. Return to the starting position from Step 3 for another count of two.

Work up to doing 100 repetitions per workout session.

(2) Plank or Modified Plank. Nobody likes doing planks, but they get the job done when it comes to boosting the strength of your core. Both planks and modified planks work multiple areas, including your abdominals, lower back, and shoulders.

  1. Start on the floor on your stomach and bend your elbows 90 degrees, resting your weight on your forearms.
  2. Place your elbows directly beneath your shoulders and form a straight line from your head to your feet.
  3. Hold this position as long as you can.

Repeat this exercise as many times as possible during each workout.

(3) Side Planks. A modification of regular planks, this side plank exercise works some of the same and some slightly different muscles that include your abdominals, oblique abdominal muscles, sides of hips, gluteals, and shoulders. Try doing some of both types for the best results.

  1. Put one of your hands against your upper stomach and the other facing the other direction below your belly button.
  2. Inhale to expand your stomach.
  3. Exhale and try to pull your abdominal muscles halfway toward your spine. This is your starting position.
  4. Contract your abdominal muscles more deeply in toward your spine while counting to two.
  5. Return to the starting position from Step 3 for another count of two.

Work up to doing 100 repetitions per workout session.

(4) Bridging. If you work on your abdominal strength, you also need to build the strength in your lower back to keep things balanced. Bridging is a good exercise to do that as it works your buttocks (including gluteals), low back, and hip extensors. Remember to breathe in and out throughout this exercise.

  1. Keeping your shoulders on the floor, slowly raise your buttocks from the floor with your stomach tight and your lower back straight.
  2. Gently lower your back to the ground.
  3. Repeat Steps 1 and 2.

(5) Pelvic Tilt. An easy exercise to do, the pelvic tilt works your lower back and lower part of your abdominals.

  1. Lie on your back on the floor with your knees bent and feet flat on the floor.
  2. Place your hands either by your sides or supporting your head.
  3. Tighten your bottom, forcing your lower back flat against the floor, and then relax.
  4. Repeat Steps 2 and 3 as many times as you can.

(6) Superhero Pose. Whether you want to leap tall building with a single bound or not, try doing this superhero pose exercise to get a stronger core. It works many areas, including your lower back, upper back, back of shoulders, and gluteals.

  1. Lie on your stomach with your arms straight out in front of your head on the floor.
  2. Rest your chin on the floor between your arms.
  3. Keeping your arms and legs straight, simultaneously lift your feet and your hands as high off the floor as you can. Aim for at least three inches.
  4. Hold that position (sort of a superhero flying position) for 10 seconds if possible, and then relax your arms and legs back onto the floor.

(7) Knee Push-Ups. Push-ups are hard to do if you haven’t built up the strength in your shoulders yet, so this knee version is an easier way to start for most people. This exercise works your chest, front of shoulders, and back of upper arms.

  1. Get on your hands and knees on the floor or a mat.
  2. Place your hands shoulder-width apart on the floor.
  3. Tighten your abdominal muscles to straighten your lower back and lower yourself down toward the floor as far as you can without touching.
  4. Push yourself back up until your arms are extended, but don’t lock your elbows.

(8) Suitcase Lift. This exercise is the proper way to lift items from the floor. Before you begin, place dumbbells or household items slightly forward and between your feet on the floor. You work the same muscles used in doing squats (lower back and lower body) with this activity.

  1. Stand in an upright position with your back and arms straight, with your hands in front of your abdomen.
  2. Bending only your knees, reach down to pick up the dumbbells.
  3. Grab the dumbbells or items in both hands and then push up with your legs and stand upright, keeping your back straight.

(9) Squats with Knee Squeezes. These squats are not your normal squats. They’re more like a combination of squatting and wall sitting with a twist. You work the front and back of thighs, inner thighs (adductors), hip flexors and extensors all with this one exercise.

  1. Stand with your back against the wall, with your feet aligned with your knees and straight out in front of you.
  2. Place a ball or pillow between your knees and hold it there with your legs.
  3. Inhale to expand your stomach and then exhale and contract your abdominal muscles.
  4. Bend your knees and lower yourself into a squat. To avoid injuring your knees, don’t bend them more than 90 degrees.
  5. Squeeze the ball with your thighs, drawing your stomach muscles more deeply toward your spine.
  6. Do as many squeezes as you can up to 20 and then return to the starting position.

(10) Lunges. Lunges are a common activity to work on the front and back of thighs, hip flexors and extensors, abdominals and lower back all with one exercise. Do them with proper form to avoid aggravating your knees, though.

  1. Keep your upper body straight, with your shoulders back and relaxed and chin up.
  2. Pick a point to stare at in front of you so you don’t keep looking down, and engage your core.
  3. Step forward with one leg, lowering your hips until both knees are bent at about a 90-degree angle. Make sure your front knee is directly above your ankle, not pushed out too far, and don’t let your back knee touch the floor.
  4. Focus on keeping your weight on your heels as you push back up to the starting position.

Even though diabetes sometimes presents tough fitness challenges, you can use these core-strengthening exercises to maintain fitness in spite of any mobility issues you’re facing right now. Whether you still active or sedentary, working your core is a safe and smart way to improve your balance, keep you as fit as possible, and elevate your overall quality of life.


Are You Getting Enough “SPA” Time?

You’ve probably heard about the recent reports revealing just how dangerous it is to be sedentary. Simply sitting for too long at one time is now a recognized health hazard that everyone should be aware of. But if you suffer from diabetes or prediabetes, a sedentary lifestyle is particularly dangerous. Getting regular exercise and movement is one of the most important things you can do keep your blood glucose under control, maintain a healthy body weight, and reduce your risk of developing complications related to diabetes.

Unfortunately, most people naturally try to do as little physical activity as possible in their day to day lives. How many times have you driven to a store and then circled around the parking lot or waited a long time to find a spot close to the door rather than just parking farther away and walking? When you do that, you’re missing out on a great opportunity for spontaneous physical activity, or SPA.

Spontaneous physical activity or “SPA time” is exactly what it sounds like. It consists of taking a dozen extra steps here and there, which can add up to a lot of calories burned over the course of the day, week, and year. SPA can happen when you get a few more steps by parking farther away or when you stand up or walk around while talking on the phone instead of sitting down. Doing anything—even fidgeting—makes your metabolism work better compared to sitting continuously for long periods of time.

If you have diabetes, adding in more daily movement in any way possible is likely to benefit your life in countless ways. If you get and stay more active every day by doing more SPA, you undoubtedly enhance and maintain your overall health, vitality, and youthful vigor more effectively. Doing easier activities like standing or walking around—even if they don’t make you break a sweat—uses up calories and helps you keep your weight stable.

Here’s one important thing to keep in mind: you won’t get as fit from doing most SPA activities like these, and SPA time alone is not adequate to fulfill your exercise requirements. (You’ll likely need to do both more daily SPA and some cardio, resistance, or other exercise training to keep fit with diabetes or prediabetes. But when matched for number of calories burned, doing easy or moderate spontaneous activities for more total time during the day works as well for improving your blood glucose and your aerobic capacity as doing harder, planned exercise for less time does.

Easy activities like cleaning, washing dishes, grocery shopping, gardening, playing with your kids or grandkids, walking the dog, standing, or any other activity can help lower your blood glucose and keep you more fit and active. Keep reading to learn some easy ways to incorporate more SPA time into your day:

  • Pace or stand while talking on the phone instead of sitting.
  • Always take the stairs instead of the elevator or escalator.
  • Window shop at the nearest mall.
  • Wash your car by hand (and wax it, too).
  • Put on some music and dance.
  • Set up a basketball net in your driveway and shoot some hoops.
  • Walk to a nearby school when school is out of session and use its playground equipment.
  • Hide the remotes for the TV, stereo, and other devices so you have to get up to adjust the settings.
  • Walk in place, dance, move around, or even just stand up while watching TV—at least during the commercials.
  • Limit your TV and home computer use to no more than two hours per day. If you can’t get down to that little, try lowering your current at-home screen time by 30 minutes to start.

Remember, when it comes to better managing your diabetes, all movement counts. SPA time is an easy way to get moving every day, so be sure to keep it going strong as a manageable, and low-impact addition to your fitness routine. Have fun with it, be creative, and above all, enjoy becoming a healthier and more active you.

Exercise to Lower Your Risk of Dying (Prematurely) with Type 1 Diabetes

Bob Stewart Jumping (crop)Much of the research on length of life for individuals living with type 1 diabetes is pessimist, which makes a new study released recently a breath of fresh air. Data were collected for the ongoing nationwide, multicenter, Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) Study that tracked the death rate of 2,639 study participants for an average of 11.4 ± 3.5 years (1).

In this study, participants’ leisure time physical activity was reported via a self-report questionnaire. Importantly, their physical activity and its intensity, duration, and frequency were examined related to dying from all causes and from cardiovascular events; some of these adults with type 1 diabetes already had diabetic kidney disease.

The researchers also looked at potentially confounding factors like sex, how long people had been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and how old they were when they got it, as well as physical measures like their systolic blood pressure, triglycerides (blood fats), BMI (body mass index), and HbA1c (a measure of overall blood glucose control over two to three months).

The conclusions of this study came as no surprise to me: exercise is associated with a lower risk of premature death from cardiovascular or any other cause in adults with type 1 diabetes. Overall, 270 people died during the follow-up period, 127 of whom had kidney disease. Only exercise intensity was associated with cardiovascular mortality, with intense activity being best for preventing early death from cardiovascular events. Both how much total physical activity they got and how frequently they exercised were associated with a lower risk of dying from any cause. Prior studies have shown that exercise frequency may also matter in preventing such events, with a higher frequency of physical activity lowering the risk (2).

People with type 2 diabetes have already been shown to have a lower risk of premature death when they are physically active (3); this is also true for the adult population in general (4; 5). However, not as many studies have looked specifically at the association between physical activity and lower mortality risk in adults with type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes has previously been associated with a shorter lifespan in many adults with it, particularly related to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease (6).

Earlier studies, such as the DCCT, have shown that keeping blood glucose levels in a more normal range can help lower the risk of diabetes-related complications in people with type 1 diabetes. Most deaths in this population are related to either cardiovascular events or kidney failure. Exercise has an innate ability to lower oxidative stress, which has been implicated in the development of many complications, as well as improve endothelial function (6). While regular physical activity is associated with a lower risk of early death in adults with and without type 2 diabetes, this study is one of the first to examine this association in type 1 diabetes.

While the exact amount of exercise needed to lower the risk of cardiovascular events is unknown and not determined by this study, doing any activity is arguably better than remaining sedentary. As in people without diabetes, intense activity likely is even more cardioprotective than moderate or light activity.

However, the exercise in this study was self-reported and only collected at the start of the study, making it is hard to draw definitive conclusions about how much exercise people need to do and how intense it needs to be to reduce the risk of dying.

In conclusion, as confirmed by this latest study, being physically active on a regular basis is critical to living long and well with type 1 diabetes. Remaining sedentary is far worse for your health and your longevity, so go get active!


References cited:

  1. Tikkanen-Dolenc H, Waden J, Forsblom C, Harjutsalo V, Thorn LM, Saraheimo M, Elonen N, Tikkanen HO, Groop PH: Physical Activity Reduces Risk of Premature Mortality in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes With and Without Kidney Disease. Diabetes Care 2017;16:dc17-0615
  2. Tikkanen-Dolenc H, Waden J, Forsblom C, Harjutsalo V, Thorn LM, Saraheimo M, Elonen N, Rosengard-Barlund M, Gordin D, Tikkanen HO, Groop PH: Frequent and intensive physical activity reduces risk of cardiovascular events in type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia 2017;60:574-580. doi: 510.1007/s00125-00016-04189-00128. Epub 02016 Dec 00124.
  3. Loprinzi PD, Sng E: The effects of objectively measured sedentary behavior on all-cause mortality in a national sample of adults with diabetes. Prev Med 2016;86:55-57
  4. Biswas A, Oh PI, Faulkner GE, Bajaj RR, Silver MA, Mitchell MS, Alter DA: Sedentary time and its association with risk for disease incidence, mortality, and hospitalization in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 2015;162:123-132
  5. Chau JY, Grunseit AC, Chey T, Stamatakis E, Brown WJ, Matthews CE, Bauman AE, van der Ploeg HP: Daily sitting time and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis. PLoS One 2013;8:e80000
  6. Bertoluci MC, Ce GV, da Silva AM, Wainstein MV, Boff W, Punales M: Endothelial dysfunction as a predictor of cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes. World J Diabetes 2015;6:679-692

Are My Joint Issues Due to Being Active, Normal Aging, or Diabetes?

Sheri DHHS 30th climbing side viewLiving with diabetes often leads me to wonder if what I’m experiencing—particularly when it’s an irritated joint or an overuse injury—is a consequence of being a regularly physically active person, getting older, or having diabetes, or some combination of those. Which one of these is causing my joint issues? Is it possible to know? I will attempt to answer these questions based on my deeper dive into the published research.

Personally, I have managed to avoid most overuse injuries (such as joint tendinitis) related to physical activity by engaging in cross-training and doing different activities on varying days, and this strategy worked well for me for over 25 years. Of late, though, I have started experiencing chronic overuse injuries (or sometimes just short-term joint irritation) that appear to arise not from most of my usual activities, but more from unusual ones—such as hand-scrubbing my house to get it ready to sell (dominant shoulder joint irritation), tamping down my front yard with a hand compactor (alternate shoulder joint pain that lasted for several years and recurs occasionally), driving a car for several hours in traffic after not driving far often (ankle joint tendinitis of some sort that took months to fully resolve), and random aches and pains in joints that come and go on any given day and may only last a few days at most.

Yes, I’m getting older (aren’t we all?), having successfully passed the half-century mark. I’ve also been living with type 1 diabetes for nearly 50 years (diagnosed at age four in 1968). My A1Cs are in recommended ranges (usually near 6.0%) and have been good ever since I got my first blood glucose meter in 1986 (after going 18 years with nothing but urine testing). I still have blood glucose fluctuations while trying to manage food, exercise, stress, occasional lack of sleep, hormonal variations, illness, and other usual factors that impact my daily levels. So, are my own occasional joint issues the result of being an active person (exercising daily for decades), normal aging, or long-standing diabetes (despite being in relatively good control for the past 30+ years)?

Are overuse injuries more likely to occur due to diabetes or aging? Overuse injuries from participation in athletic endeavors (even just walking) are more common in people with diabetes, likely due to changes in joint structures when exposed to hyperglycemia over time (1). But aging also increases the incidence of overuse injuries when exercisers are older (2). For instance, in one study 70% of the injuries in older exercisers (over 60 years) were overuse injuries, but accounted for only 41% of injuries in younger adults (early 20s).

Is it due to inflammation related to aging or to diabetes? Aging lab rats have overuse activity changes to the structure of their tendons related to inflammation that may make them more prone to injury (3), but when it comes to humans, the research is unclear whether inflammation is involved (4). In one review (5), “prolonged systemic, low-grade inflammation and impaired insulin sensitivity act as a risk factor for a failed healing response after an acute tendon insult and predispose to the development of chronic overuse tendinopathies.” Perhaps, then, in people with diabetes, joint structures do not respond as well to or repair as quickly after activities (6).

Others have argued that low-level, systemic inflammation is not involved in changes to tendons that may lead to injury (4). People with diabetes have some structural joint changes that may or may not be related to diabetes duration or type, although poorer blood glucose management has been associated with higher levels of systemic inflammation (1). Fit, active adults with type 1 diabetes with good blood glucose control exhibit more inflammatory markers in response to exercise, but appear to recover normally (7). If someone has had “good” control for many years, does that lower the chance that their overuse injuries are diabetes-related? I’m quickly raising more questions than I can answer!

Other joint issues like frozen shoulder, carpal tunnel syndrome, and trigger finger are more common in people with diabetes, and structural changes to tendons may occur in people with diabetes (8). On the other hand, my non-diabetic, aging (mid-50s), reasonably active neighbor has had two frozen shoulders in recent years that clearly have nothing to do with diabetes or blood glucose management. I’ve also known people with diabetes who are active that develop a frozen shoulder, but others who get this condition are sedentary, suggesting that such joint issues are not consistently related to diabetes or habitual physical activity.

In short, if you are reading this in hopes of finding out whether joint pains and overuse injuries are more related to being active, aging, or diabetes, you are about to be sorely disappointed because I am unable to determine that based on available research. That said, it is likely that getting older (and not springing back as quickly) contributes to the rise in overuse injuries with aging, but that just means that everyone will have to find ways to be active that do not aggravate any existing issues. The best policy still is to vary your activities, try not to overdo or act like you’re still twenty, and rest appropriately and take time off when necessary to recover from injuries. Given we’re all aging and a significant number of us will be developing diabetes in our later years (if we don’t have it already), it is a topic ripe with possibility for future research.


References cited:

  1. Abate M, Schiavone C, Salini V, Andia I: Management of limited joint mobility in diabetic patients. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2013;6:197-207
  2. Kannus P, Niittymaki S, Jarvinen M, Lehto M: Sports injuries in elderly athletes: a three-year prospective, controlled study. Age Ageing 1989;18:263-270.
  3. Kietrys DM, Barr-Gillespie AE, Amin M, Wade CK, Popoff SN, Barbe MF: Aging contributes to inflammation in upper extremity tendons and declines in forelimb agility in a rat model of upper extremity overuse. PLoS One 2012;7:e46954. doi: 46910.41371/journal.pone.0046954.
  4. Kjaer M, Bayer ML, Eliasson P, Heinemeier KM: What is the impact of inflammation on the critical interplay between mechanical signaling and biochemical changes in tendon matrix? 1985) 2013;115:879-883. doi: 810.1152/japplphysiol.00120.02013.
  5. Del Buono A, Battery L, Denaro V, Maccauro G, Maffulli N: Tendinopathy and inflammation: some truths. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2011;24:45-50.
  6. Battery L, Maffulli N: Inflammation in overuse tendon injuries. Sports Med Arthrosc 2011;19:213-217. doi: 210.1097/JSA.1090b1013e31820e31826a31892.
  7. West DJ, Campbell MD, Gonzalez JT, Walker M, Stevenson EJ, Ahmed FW, Wijaya S, Shaw JA, Weaver JU: The inflammation, vascular repair and injury responses to exercise in fit males with and without Type 1 diabetes: an observational study. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2015;14:71
  8. de Jonge S, Rozenberg R, Vieyra B, Stam HJ, Aanstoot HJ, Weinans H, van Schie HT, Praet SF: Achilles tendons in people with type 2 diabetes show mildly compromised structure: an ultrasound tissue characterisation study. Br J Sports Med 2015;49:995-999. doi: 910.1136/bjsports-2014-093696.

Is Sitting the New Smoking?


Make no mistake: sitting less time overall is a good idea for myriad health reasons, but is sitting as bad for you as some would suggest? Is it really the new smoking? In 2017 alone, a slew of new research studies has looked at various health detriments associated with prolonged sitting, even in adults who exercise regularly.

For adults with type 2 diabetes, bouts of either light walking or simple resistance activities benefit not only their glycemic responses to meals (1; 2), but also markers of cardiovascular risk. Both types of interrupting activities are associated with reductions in inflammatory lipids, increases in antioxidant capacity of other lipids, and changes in platelet activation (3).

What is good for one may not be as beneficial for all, though. For example, in adults with low levels of frailty, sedentary time is not predictive of mortality, regardless of physical activity level (4). Sitting more if you are already frail likely just increases frailty and mortality risk, which is not surprising. Along the same lines, being less fit matters in how you respond to breaking up sedentary time. Middle-aged adults with low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness gained the most metabolic benefit from breaking prolonged sitting with regular bouts of light walking, which included five minutes of light walking every 30 minutes over a 7-hour research period (5). If you’re already very fit, adding in some light walking breaks during the day is not going to have as much of an effect—again not surprising.

For in adolescents in school, reducing their sitting time (both in total time and length of bouts) has been shown to improve their blood lipid profiles and cognitive function. A “typical” day (65% of the time spent sitting with two sitting bouts >20 minutes) was compared with a simulated “reduced sitting” day (sitting 50% less with no bouts >20 minutes (6). Can teens stand to improve their health this week? Again, it cannot hurt to break up sedentary time, so why not do it? More recess breaks for teens would be good—and for everyone else for that matter.

All is not lost for people with limited mobility or no ability to engage in weight-bearing activities. Including short bouts of arm ergometry (five minutes of upper body work only every 30 minutes) during prolonged sitting attenuates postprandial glycemia (following two separate meals) when done by obese individuals at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes, even though they remain seated (7). People who cannot walk or stand can, therefore, break up their sedentary time in other ways that can also be metabolically beneficial.

As for other health benefits, breaking up sedentary time is associated with a lower risk of certain types of cancer. In a recent meta-analysis, prolonged television viewing, occupational sitting time, and total sitting time were all associated with increased risks of colorectal cancer in adults (8), which is the most common type after breast/prostate and lung cancers. That study reported a dose-response effect as well, suggesting that both prolonged total sitting time and greater total daily sitting time (2 hours) were associated with a significantly higher risk of colorectal cancer.

In summary, even just the most recent evidence is convincing enough that prolonged sitting is bad for you, and many more studies published similar results in prior years. Is sitting as bad as smoking, though? That remains to be proven. However, you really cannot argue with a recent international consensus statement on sedentary time in older people (9). It states, “Sedentary time is a modifiable determinant of poor health, and in older adults, reducing sedentary time may be an important first step in adopting and maintaining a more active lifestyle.” In fact, the best advice may simply be to consider the whole spectrum of physical activity, from sedentary behavior through to structured exercise (10). Putting yourself anywhere onto that spectrum is definitely better than sitting through the rest of your (shortened) life.

                                                                                                                                                            References cited:


  1. Larsen RN, Dempsey PC, Dillon F, Grace M, Kingwell BA, Owen N, Dunstan DW: Does the type of activity “break” from prolonged sitting differentially impact on postprandial blood glucose reductions? An exploratory analysis. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2017;42:897-900. doi: 810.1139/apnm-2016-0642. Epub 2017 Mar 1124.
  2. Dempsey PC, Larsen RN, Sethi P, Sacre JW, Straznicky NE, Cohen ND, Cerin E, Lambert GW, Owen N, Kingwell BA, Dunstan DW: Benefits for type 2 diabetes of interrupting prolonged sitting with brief bouts of light walking or simple resistance activities. Diabetes Care 2016;39:964-972
  3. Grace MS, Dempsey PC, Sethi P, Mundra PA, Mellett NA, Weir JM, Owen N, Dunstan DW, Meikle PJ, Kingwell BA: Breaking Up Prolonged Sitting Alters the Postprandial Plasma Lipidomic Profile of Adults With Type 2 Diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017;102:1991-1999. doi: 1910.1210/jc.2016-3926.
  4. Theou O, Blodgett JM, Godin J, Rockwood K: Association between sedentary time and mortality across levels of frailty. CMAJ 2017;189:E1056-E1064. doi: 1010.1503/cmaj.161034.
  5. McCarthy M, Edwardson CL, Davies MJ, Henson J, Bodicoat DH, Khunti K, Dunstan DW, King JA, Yates T: Fitness Moderates Glycemic Responses to Sitting and Light Activity Breaks. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2017;8:0000000000001338
  6. Penning A, Okely AD, Trost SG, Salmon J, Cliff DP, Batterham M, Howard S, Parrish AM: Acute effects of reducing sitting time in adolescents: a randomized cross-over study. BMC Public Health 2017;17:657. doi: 610.1186/s12889-12017-14660-12886.
  7. McCarthy M, Edwardson CL, Davies MJ, Henson J, Rowlands A, King JA, Bodicoat DH, Khunti K, Yates T: Breaking up sedentary time with seated upper body activity can regulate metabolic health in obese high-risk adults: A randomized crossover trial. Diabetes Obes Metab 2017;23:13016
  8. Ma P, Yao Y, Sun W, Dai S, Zhou C: Daily sedentary time and its association with risk for colorectal cancer in adults: A dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Medicine (Baltimore) 2017;96:e7049. doi: 7010.1097/MD.0000000000007049.
  9. Dogra S, Ashe MC, Biddle SJH, Brown WJ, Buman MP, Chastin S, Gardiner PA, Inoue S, Jefferis BJ, Oka K, Owen N, Sardinha LB, Skelton DA, Sugiyama T, Copeland JL: Sedentary time in older men and women: an international consensus statement and research priorities. Br J Sports Med 2017;19:2016-097209
  10. Dempsey PC, Grace MS, Dunstan DW: Adding exercise or subtracting sitting time for glycaemic control: where do we stand? Diabetologia 2017;60:390-394. doi: 310.1007/s00125-00016-04180-00124. Epub 02016 Dec 00112.

…And Stay Active: My Profile of Success

Sheri exercising pulldown closerI would like to share some of my personal story about why physical activity matters to me and how I have lived successfully with type 1 diabetes for almost 50 years to date. My success with diabetes is undoubtedly related to my decision to be physically active.
The secret to my overall success, both professional and personal, is that I made a conscious choice to live my life by one guiding principle: Live life first, and be diabetic second. In the beginning, I’m not sure it was even a conscious choice (I was only four years old when diagnosed with type 1 diabetes), but rather just an integral part of my personality. I am not one to let obstacles keep me from reaching my goals. Having diabetes has undeniably been one of the greatest challenges to living my life the way I want to, but it has almost never been an insurmountable one.
It’s hard to even imagine life without diabetes when you get it as young as I did. I don’t remember much about being diagnosed other than feeling sluggish and tired all the time. The biggest irony was that my mother had avoided becoming a nurse because she hated needles, but the doctors wouldn’t let me out of the hospital before she learned how to give me shots. She apparently practiced for days shooting water from a syringe into an orange all week. When she gave me my first shot in my arm, she jabbed the needle so hard it rebounded back out. I am told I said, with tears streaming down my face, “Mommy, go practice on the orange some more.”
Diabetes has, in many ways, been a blessing in disguise. It likely had a positive impact on my family’s overall health because our whole family switched to the same diet that was prescribed for me at the time—a balanced diet of carbs, protein, and fat with lots of vegetables, some fruit, and very limited intake of sweets and refined foods. Having diabetes has also been a positive, shaping force in my life when it comes to exercise and physical activity. As such, I have amended my original guiding principle to include, “…and stay active” for that reason: Live life first, be diabetic second, and stay active.
While many people view exercise as a punishment, I fully embrace using diabetes as an excuse to put my workouts first! I started exercising regularly way before it was trendy and known to be good for your health (and blood glucose). I was always active as a kid, playing in the woods, building forts, and just being a tomboy. As a preteen, I began exercising regularly on my own and doing organized sports because being active was the only thing that made me to feel like I had any control over my blood glucose. Way back then no one had blood glucose meters (only inaccurate urine testing), but I could tell being active helped with my blood glucose.
To this day, I still exercise six to seven days a week, and my passion is helping others with all types of diabetes do the same—safely, effectively, and for a lifetime. I vary my daily workouts to keep them fun and to stay injury-free and advise everyone else how to do so. When people ask me how I manage to do all I do, I tell them simply, “I work out.”
Diabetes also led me to an early calling as a healthy lifestyle and diabetes motion expert. When I was about twelve, I spent a week in Kansas with my grandmother, who had what they called “borderline” type 2 diabetes. She was on yet another diet to lose weight, and I decided to help her with dieting while I was there—acting like a personal trainer or fitness coach. I weighed her in every morning, helped her measure out her food (like cottage cheese), and made her jog laps around her backyard. At the start of the week, she agreed to pay me $1 for every pound she lost with my help. She lost eight pounds that week—was I ever a rich kid! Little did I know back then that she likely lost a whole lot less after the first week and gained it all back over time. I just remember her always being about the same body size and shape every time I saw her.
Back then my grandmother was the only other person I knew with diabetes. Later when I was in graduate school working on a degree in exercise physiology, she starting suffering from myriad complications including a heart attack, followed two years later by a major stroke and smaller ones that eventually left her incapacitated. She was bedbound and unable to communicate or feed herself for most her last six years, and she had partial amputations of both of her legs due to chronic ulcers. During one visit, I looked at her and thought, I don’t want to live like that. Consequently, most of my life and career I have focused on how to stay healthy with diabetes and avoid complications. To me, what’s most important is living well while you are alive. That’s why I preach about how important a healthy lifestyle is to maintaining your quality of life (whether you have diabetes or not) and that just living a long time without good health should not be your goal.
You certainly don’t have to get a PhD in exercise physiology like I did to understand the metabolic changes that occur with exercise, but learning why it is so beneficial can be very motivating. You can virtually “erase” overeating mistakes with exercise, and you can keep yourself from getting other health conditions (like heart disease). I’m sure that I am only in excellent health after almost 50 years with type 1 diabetes because of my lifestyle choices—and I want to stay that way until I reach my last day.
As I always say, “What’s the point of living longer if you can’t live well and feel your best every day of your life?” Take my advice and live life first, be diabetic second, and stay as active as you possibly can every day of your healthy (and hopefully long) life.

Staying Active with Aging Joints and Diabetes

Using bandsWithout properly functioning joints, our bodies would be unable to bend, flex, or even move. A joint is wherever two bones come together, held in place by tendons that cross the joint and attach muscles to a bone on the other side and ligaments that attach to bones on both sides of the joint to stabilize it. The ends of the bones are covered with cartilage, a white substance. Specialized cells there called chondrocytes produce large amounts of an extracellular matrix composed of collagen fibers, proteoglycan, elastin fibers, and water. Tendons and ligaments are also made up of primarily of collagen.

Joints can be damaged, however, making movement more difficult or painful. Joint cartilage can be damaged by acute injuries (i.e., ankle sprain, tendon or ligament tears) or overuse (related to repetition of joint movements and wear-and-tear over time). Damage to the thin cartilage layer covering the ends of the bones is not repaired by the body easily or well, mainly because cartilage lacks its own blood supply.

Aging alone can cause you to lose some loss of this articular cartilage layer in knee, hip, and other joints—leading to osteoarthritis and joint pain—but having diabetes also potentially speeds up damage to joints. Although everyone gets stiffer joints with aging, diabetes accelerates the usual loss of flexibility by changing the structure of collagen in the joints, tendons, and ligaments. In short, glucose “sticking” to joint surfaces and collagen makes people with diabetes more prone to overuse injuries like tendinitis and frozen shoulder (1; 2). It may also take longer for their joint injuries to heal properly, especially if blood glucose levels are not managed effectively. What’s more, having reduced motion around joints increases the likelihood of injuries, falls, and self-imposed physical inactivity due to fear of falling.

Reduced flexibility limits movement around joints, increases the likelihood of orthopedic injuries, and presents a greater risk of joint-related problems often associated with diabetes, such as diabetic frozen shoulder, tendinitis, trigger finger, and carpal tunnel syndrome. These joint issues can come on with no warning and for no apparent reason, even if an individual exercises regularly and moderately, and they may recur more easily as well (3). It is not always just due to diabetes, though, since older adults without diabetes experience inflamed joints more readily than when they were younger.

So what can you do to keep your joints mobile if you’re aging (as we all are) and have diabetes? Regular stretching to keep full motion around joints can help prevent some of these problems, and also include specific resistance exercises that strengthen the muscles surrounding affected joints. Vary activities to stress joints differently each day. Overuse injuries occur following excessive use the same joints and muscle in a similar way over an extended period of weeks or months, or they can result from doing too much too soon.

Doing moderate aerobic activity that is weight-bearing (like walking) will actually improve arthritis pain in hips and knees (4). People can also try non-weight-bearing activities, such as aquatic activities that allow joints to be moved more fluidly. Swimming and aquatic classes (like water aerobics) in either shallow or deep water are both appropriate and challenging activities to improve joint mobility, overall strength, and aerobic fitness. Walking in a pool (with or without a flotation belt around the waist), recumbent stationary cycling, upper-body exercises, seated aerobic workouts, and resistance activities will give you additional options to try.

Finally, managing blood glucose levels effectively is also important to limit changed to collagen structures related to hyperglycemia. Losing excess weight and keeping body weight lower will decrease the risk for excessive stress on joints that can lead to lower body joint osteoarthritis (5). Simply staying as active as possible is also critical to allowing your joints to age well, but remember to rest inflamed joints properly to give them a chance to heal properly. You may have to try some new activities as you age to work around your joint limitations, but a side benefit is that you may find some of them to be enjoyable!


  1. Abate M, Schiavone C, Pelotti P, Salini V: Limited joint mobility in diabetes and ageing: Recent advances in pathogenesis and therapy. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2011;23:997-1003
  2. Ranger TA, Wong AM, Cook JL, Gaida JE: Is there an association between tendinopathy and diabetes mellitus? A systematic review with meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med 2015;
  3. Rozental TD, Zurakowski D, Blazar PE: Trigger finger: Prognostic indicators of recurrence following corticosteroid injection. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2008;90:1665-1672
  4. Rogers LQ, Macera CA, Hootman JM, Ainsworth BE, Blairi SN: The association between joint stress from physical activity and self-reported osteoarthritis: An analysis of the Cooper Clinic data. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2002;10:617-622
  5. Magrans-Courtney T, Wilborn C, Rasmussen C, Ferreira M, Greenwood L, Campbell B, Kerksick CM, Nassar E, Li R, Iosia M, Cooke M, Dugan K, Willoughby D, Soliah L, Kreider RB: Effects of diet type and supplementation of glucosamine, chondroitin, and msm on body composition, functional status, and markers of health in women with knee osteoarthritis initiating a resistance-based exercise and weight loss program. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2011;8:8